The roof offers us not only protection but also space. The roof structure and shape are decisive for this. The roof includes not only the construction and roofing but also windows, dormers, and gutters.
The covering is also essential for protection, as it also creates a visual effect, whether through shape, material, or color. But it only becomes cozy inside with natural light. Skylights are relatively inexpensive and can usually be installed without a permit – in contrast to dormers, which create more space for them.
The roof skin forms the roof’s outer edge – usually made of roof tiles or concrete blocks. The classic roof tile reliably drains rainwater, protects the roof insulation from moisture, and is very deformation-tolerant. The loosely laid roof tiles are secured at regular intervals with so-called storm anchors against storm damage. Roof seals made of bitumen (for flat roofs), slate, or thatched are far less common.
The green roof occupies an ecological niche: a green roof is attractive and offers insects and microorganisms valuable (because in our barren cities usually scarce) habitat. We humans use roofs overgrown with plants because they insulate the interior against heat and cold, improve the indoor climate and reduce temperature fluctuations. The green roof also protects the roof skin and reduces noise. When there is noise you can find a roofing expert.
Good thermal insulation of the roof structure is mandatory for new buildings: A combination of between-rafter and over-rafter insulation is usually installed to maintain the required insulation thicknesses. In insulated roofs, it is essential to lay the vapor barrier film without gaps – it prevents humid room air from diffusing into the insulation material. It knots in colder layers and slowly but surely moistens the insulation. Heat loss and mold growth are then the damage that can hardly be repaired.
So that valuable living space can also be created under the roof, the space under the slope needs sufficient light: dormer or skylight? It would be best if you answered this question when planning the roof. A roof window can also be retrofitted comparatively easily and inexpensively. Putting on a dormer later is a complex and expensive construction project done by licensed contractors.